The Nazca Lines are a series of large ancient geoglyphs (地画) in the Nazca Desert, in southern Peru. It is ranging from geometric patterns to drawings of different animals and stylized human-like forms. The ancient lines can only be truly taken in from high in the air, leaving generations puzzled as to how these precise works could have been completed long before the documented invention of human flight.
The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920s. Who built them and what was their purpose? Are they roads, star pointers, maybe even a gigantic map? If the people who lived here 2,000 years ago had only a simple technology, how did they manage to construct such precise figures? Did they have a plan? These markings are like a vast puzzle.
The Nazca Lines are the most outstanding group of geoglyphs in the world. There are also huge geoglyphs in Egypt, Malta, the United States (Mississippi and California), Chile, Holivia and in other countries. But the Nazca geoglyphs, because of their numbers, characteristics, dimensions and cultural continuity as they were made and remade throughout a certain history period, form the most impressive archeological (考古学的) group.
The Nazca plain is unique for its ability to preserve the markings upon it, due to the combination of the climate (one of the driest on Earth, with only twenty minutes of rainfall per year) and the flat, stony ground which minimizes the effect of the wind at ground level. With no dust or sand to cover the plain and little rain or wind to erode (腐蚀) it, lines drawn here tend to stay drawn. These factors, combined with the existence of lighter-colored subsoil beneath the desert surface, provide a vast writing pad that is suited to the artist who wants to leave his mark eternal.
篇章导读：本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了出现在秘鲁南部Nazca沙漠的大型古代地画the Nazca Lines的神奇之处及形成原因。
1．What can we know about the Nazca Lines from the first two paragraphs?
A．They are built as a big map.
B．They are formed by nature.
C．They are ancient lines in caves.
D．They are huge markings in a desert.
答案：D 细节理解题。根据第一段第一句“The Nazca Lines are a series of large ancient geoglyphs (地画) in the Nazca Desert, in southern Peru.”及下文对The Nazca Lines图案和发现过程的具体介绍可知，the Nazca Lines是出现在秘鲁南部Nazca沙漠的大型古代地画，故选D。
2．How many factors make the Nazca Lines the most impressive?
答案：D 细节理解题。根据第三段最后一句中的“because of their numbers, characteristics, dimensions and cultural continuity ..., form the most impressive”可知，四个因素使得这些地画给人留下极为深刻的印象，故选D。
3．Why are the Nazca Lines well preserved?
A．Because of the wind at ground level.
B．Because of the existence of soft soil.
C．Because of the climate and geography.
D．Because of the thick sand on the top.
答案：C 推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“The Nazca plain is unique for its ability to preserve the markings upon it, due to the combination of the climate (one of the driest on Earth, with only twenty minutes of rainfall per year) and the flat, stony ground which minimizes the effect of the wind at ground level.”可知，因为这里干燥少雨的气候和平坦多石的地形使地画能很好地保留下来，故选C。
4．What does the underlined word “eternal” probably mean?
答案：B 词义猜测题。最后一句指这些因素，加上沙漠表面下浅色底土的存在，给想要永久留下印记的艺术家提供了一个巨大的书写板。eternal “永恒的”，和everlasting同义，故选B。
Lebanese filmmaker Nadine Labaki has become the first female artist in the Arab world to be nominated (提名) for an Academy Award, or Oscar.
Labaki directed the film Capernaum, a film about a Syrian refugee (难民) boy and a Kenyan baby who live without parents on the streets of Beirut. It was nominated for best foreign language film.
Labaki will be one of the few female directors to compete for an Oscar this year. She told TheAssociatedPress “I wish there were a lot more women filmmakers this year represented，nominated in the Oscars. But I am sure in a few years we won't be having this problem anymore.”
Unlike in the West, women filmmakers are industry leaders in Lebanon.
Capernaum received a 15-minute standing ovation (热烈欢迎) at this year's Cannes Film Festival. It won the Jury Prize—the third-highest award given at Cannes.
The United Nations has publicly praised the film. Lebanon's Foreign Minister said Capernaum put a Lebanese touch on the international film industry.
The Oscar nomination of Capernaum is the second for Lebanon in two years in the film group. It demonstrates the country's rising star power.
Labaki called making the movie a life-changing experience. She said Capernaum helps humanize the real struggles of refugees only briefly talked about in the news.
“We can't help but acknowledge that there is a fear of refugees in general around the world and there are these walls we are building, and this fear keeps growing，” Labaki said.
Capernaum will compete against four other films for the Oscar, including awards season favorite Roma. Directed by Mexico's Alfonso Cuaron, it earned 10 Oscar nominations, including for best picture.
5．Where does Labaki come from?
A．Syria. B．Kenya. ?????????????
答案：C 细节理解题。根据第一段中的“Lebanese film maker”可知，Nadine Labaki是黎巴嫩人，故答案为C。
6．What do we know from Labaki's words in Paragraph 3?
A．Few women directors have been nominated in the Oscars.
B．She was the first female artist to compete for an Oscar.
C．More women directors will enter for Oscar this year.
D．Female directors have problems with their films.
7．Which of the following best describes Capernaum?
A．It is the best foreign language film.
B．It shows the rising power of women.
C．It has won the first prize at Cannes.
D．It is highly thought of.
8．What does the underlined “it” in the last paragraph refer to?
答案：C 指代判断题。上句的最后提到了非常受欢迎的电影Roma, 然后本句就谈到这部电影是由谁导演，并获得十项提名。由此可知，此处it指代电影Roma，故答案为C。
Black Friday is the Friday following Thanksgiving Day in the United States. It has been regarded as the beginning of the holiday shopping season. Although it's not an official holiday, millions of employers give their employees the day off, and many people use that day to get a jump-start on their holiday shopping. A similar day in Canada and the Great Britain is called “Boxing Day”．
Black Friday has become somewhat of a marketing sensation in recent years. Since 2005, it has been the busiest shopping day of the year. To lure shoppers, retailers (零售商) routinely open their doors as early as 4 am and offer special sales and promotions to the shoppers that arrive early. Some of the special deals offered by stores are only available in limited quantities. That is why some shoppers intent on getting the best deals often camp out in front of stores overnight so that they'll be the first in line when the doors open.
But why Black Friday? Historians believe the name started in Philadelphia in the mid-1960s. Bus drivers and police used “Black Friday” to describe the heavy traffic that would block city streets the day after Thanksgiving as shoppers headed to the stores.
Businesses, however, didn't like the negative tone associated with the “Black Friday” name. In the early 1980s, a more positive explanation of the name began to circulate. According to this alternative explanation, Black Friday is the day when retailers finally begin to turn a profit for the year. In accounting terms (会计说法), operating at a loss is called being “in the red” because accountants traditionally used red ink to show negative amounts. Positive amounts were usually shown in black ink. Thus，being “in the black” is a good thing because it means stores are operating at a profit.
Recently, for those who are too busy to shop on Black Friday or who just don't want to fight the crowds, the Monday following Black Friday has become known as Cyber Monday (网络星期一) for the many online deals.
9．On Black Friday, the Americans ________.
A．don't have to go to work as usual
B．look exactly like the Canadians
C．are usually busy doing shopping
D．stay at home and relax themselves
10．The underlined word “lure” (in Paragraph 2) probably means “________”．
答案：B 词义猜测题。根据画线词所在句子“retailers (零售商) routinely open their doors as early as 4 am and offer special sales and promotions to the shoppers that arrive early(零售商早上4点就开门，给早到的顾客一些特价打折和促销)”，故可推知，lure是“吸引”的意思。
11．How do the retailers understand Black Friday?
A．It is totally different from Boxing Day.
B．They usually lose some money on that day.
C．It never keeps them very busy.
D．It probably brings them more money.
12．The author writes this passage in order to ________.
A．state the development of Cyber Monday
B．tell the difference between red and black
C．introduce Black Friday to the readers
D．explain the meaning of Boxing Day
答案：C 推理判断题。根据文章对这个特殊“节日”的介绍和关键信息第一段第一句“Black Friday is the Friday following Thanksgiving Day in the United States.”可知，文章主要向读者介绍“黑色星期五”的相关信息。
You may be surprised to learn that English gets 30 to 45 percent of its words from French. The reason goes back to the year 1066, when Norman forces invaded (入侵) what is now Britain. The Normans were from northern France and spoke French. During the Norman occupation, French became the language of England's rulers and wealthy class. This lasted for more than 300 years. Other people in England continued to speak English during this period.
Over time, the two languages combined and shared words. Some researchers believe that about 10,000 French words eventually entered the English language. However, although English took many French words, their meanings have not always stayed the same. Sometimes the differences in meanings can be very important, and lead to funny or strange situations if the words are used in the wrong way.
Take, for example, the French word college. In English, college can often be used in place of the word university, or sometimes as a school within a university. However, in French, college actually means “middle school”， or the level of schooling for students in grades five or six through eight.
There are many other similar words in the two languages with completely different meanings. In English, the word chat is a verb which means “to talk casually”； but in French, the word chat is the word for an animal: a cat.
If an English speaker says someone is jolly, that means they are cheerful or friendly. But in French, jolie means someone is good-looking or pleasant to look at. In any case, both are nice things to say to someone.
13．What language did the upper class speak in Britain of Norman times?
C．Both English and French.
D．Some unknown language.
答案：B 细节理解题。根据第一段中的“During the Norman occupation, French became the language of England's rulers and wealthy class.”可知，诺曼时代英国的上层阶级说法语。故选B。
14．What does college mean in French?
A．The teenager time.
B．University in French.
C．Middle school in English.
D．University in common sense.
答案：C 细节理解题。根据第三段中的“However, in French, college actually means ‘middle school’”可知，“college”在法语里的意思是“中学”。故选C。
15．What is the text mainly about?
A．Comparison between two languages.
B．Difficulty in grasping English.
C．French words in English.
D．Development of English.
答案：C 主旨大意题。根据第一段第一句“You may be surprised to learn that English gets 30 to 45 percent of its words from French.”和第二段第一句“Over time, the two languages combined and shared words. Some researchers believe that about 10,000 French words eventually entered the English language.”可知，本文讲述的是“英语中的法语单词”。故选C。
(2018·浙江高考)As cultural symbols go, the American car is quite young. The Model T Ford was built at the Piquette Plant in Michigan a century ago, with the first rolling off the assembly line (装配线) on September 27, 1908. Only eleven cars were produced the next month. But eventually Henry Ford would build fifteen million of them.
Modern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger. For most of the last century, the car represented what it meant to be American—going forward at high speed to find new worlds. The road novel, the road movie, these are the most typical American ideas, born of abundant petrol, cheap cars and a never-ending interstate highway system, the largest public works project in history.
In 1928 Herbert Hoover imagined an America with “a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.” Since then, this society has moved onward, never looking back, as the car transformed America from a farm-based society into an industrial power.
The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster. In America the demand for oil has grown by 22 percent since 1990.
The problems of excessive (过度的) energy consumption, climate change and population growth have been described in a book by the American writer Thomas L. Friedman. He fears the worst, but hopes for the best.
Friedman points out that the green economy (经济) is a chance to keep American strength. “The ability to design, build and export green technologies for producing clean water, clean air and healthy and abundant food is going to be the currency of power in the new century.”
1．Why is hamburger mentioned in Paragraph 2?
A．To explain Americans' love for travelling by car.
B．To show the influence of cars on American culture.
C．To stress the popularity of fast food with Americans.
D．To praise the effectiveness of America's road system.
答案：B 细节理解题。根据第二段第二句“The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger.”(汽车塑造了美国文化中一些最持久的层面：路边小餐馆、广告牌、汽车旅馆，甚至是汉堡。)可知，该段提及汉堡是为了显示汽车对美国文化的影响。故选B。
2．What has the use of cars in America led to?
A．Decline of economy.
C．A shortage of oil supply.
D．A farm-based society.
3．What is Friedman's attitude towards America's future?
答案：C 观点态度题。根据最后一段最后一句可知，Friedman认为在新世纪能够设计、构建和输出生产清洁水、洁净空气以及健康和充足食品的绿色技术将成为新世纪的硬通货。同时结合第五段最后一句中的“hopes for the best”可知，Friedman对美国的未来充满希望。故选C。
(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness (荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000.
Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche (雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives.
But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left DawsonCity as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go—to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of DawsonCity—its present population is 762.
4．What attracted the early settlers to New York City?
A．Its business culture.
B．Its small population.
C．Its geographical position.
D．Its favourable climate.
答案：C 细节理解题。根据文章第一段第一、二句，并结合关键信息第三句“New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River.”可知，纽约吸引早期移民的原因是它的地理位置，故C正确。
5．What do we know about those who first dug for gold in Dawson?
A．Two-thirds of them stayed there.
B．One out of five people got rich.
C．Almost everyone gave up.
D．Half of them died.
答案：B 细节理解题。根据文章第二段倒数第二句“Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich.”可知，在最初挖黄金的两万人中有4,000人变富有，所以是五分之一的人变富了，故B正确。
6．What was the main reason for many people to leave Dawson?
A．They found the city too crowded.
B．They wanted to try their luck elsewhere.
C．They were unable to stand the winter.
D．They were short of food.
答案：B 细节理解题。根据文章最后一段第四句中的“... and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come”可知，人们离开Dawson的主要原因是听说在Alaska发现了黄金，也就是他们要去别的地方寻找发财的机会。故B正确。
7．What is the text mainly about?
A．The rise and fall of a city.
B．The gold rush in Canada.
C．Journeys into the wilderness.
D．Tourism in Dawson.
(2020·广东省实验中学高三上学期第一次考试)Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) needs to prove its worth through rigorous clinical trials, according to the head of one of China's largest herbal remedy companies, as a contentious new law to boost the $40bn sector comes into effect.
Traditional Chinese Medicine is estimated by analysts to account for a third of sales in China's $117bn pharmaceutical (药学) market, the world's second largest. But most of those sales are of relatively cheap over-the-counter drugs, with many Chinese hospital doctors unwilling to prescribe TCM remedies because of the lack of evidence for their effectiveness.
China's first law promising equal status for TCM and western medicine in the country's state-dominated healthcare system comes into effect this weekend. Provisions include encouragement for hospitals to set up TCM centres, and a licensing system for practitioners (从业者). “This law is very important for securing the status of TCM，” said Wu Yiling, chairman of Yiling Pharmaceutical, a company that makes herbal remedies based on traditional recipes in the northern province of Hebei.
Listed in Shenzhen, Wu Yiling has a market capitalization of RMB 20.7bn ($3bn). Mr Wu, the son of a herbal practitioner, controls a family fortune of $1.6bn, according to the Hurun Rich List.
Mr Wu is both a supporter of the nature of Qi—the mystical energy force that provides the basis for much of TCM theory—and the clinical trials vital to western pharmaceutical companies. “TCM needs to develop using modern research methods，” he said.
For instance, researchers from Peking and CardiffUniversities tested the health benefits of Yiling's herbal medicine Yangzheng Xiaoji, publishing papers in the InternationalJournalofOncology that showed the drug can slow the growth of cancer tumours. “The theory and recipe is TCM, but in practice the evaluation of our medicines is carried out according to western evidence-based methods，” Mr Wu said.
Analysts say such tests can help gain support from doubtful hospital doctors and boost prescriptions. “Doctors need strong evidence that drugs definitely work，” said Serena Shao, healthcare analyst at brokerage CLSA.“Some of these companies are currently doing clinical trials, and getting proof that their drugs have the same efficacy (功效) as chemical drugs. That's the way to go.” she added.
The TCM law has been greeted with doubt from China's western-schooled medical establishment, which points to a lack of rigorous training for TCM doctors, and a recent series of shocking events involving herbal injections believed to have been harmful. “Officials will try and encourage TCM, but also will be very cautious about what kinds of TCM they use in hospitals，” added Ms Shao.
8．Why does Traditional Chinese Medicine need to prove its worth through rigorous clinical trials?
A．Because Chinese medicine is all cheap over-the-counter drugs.
B．Because Chinese medicine market is the world's second largest one.
C．Because Chinese government wants to boost the law of Chinese medicine.
D．Because doctors are unwilling to prescribe TCM remedies lacking evidence of effectiveness.
答案：D 细节理解题。根据第二段中的“But most of those sales are of relatively cheap over-the-counter drugs, with many Chinese hospital doctors unwilling to prescribe TCM remedies (疗法) because of the lack of evidence for their effectiveness.”可知，医生不愿意开出缺乏有效证据的中医药治疗方法，所以中医需要通过严格的临床试验证明其价值。故选D。
9．Which words can be used to replace the underlined word “Provisions” in the third paragraph?
A．Articles of law.
B．Ways of supplying.
C．Methods of motivation.
D．Approaches to inspiring.
答案：A 词义猜测题。根据画线词后的“include encouragement for hospitals to set up TCM centres, and a licensing system for practitioners (从业者)．”可知，鼓励医院建立TCM中心，以及为从业者提供许可证制度，这些属于规定的具体内容，因此画线词指的是“法律条款”。故选A。
10．According to the passage, we can learn that Mr Wu Yiling ________.
A．is a herbal practitioner, controlling a family fortune
B．has a company in Shenzhen that has a market capitalization of $3bn
C．let his company evaluate herbal medicines with western evidence-based methods
D．thinks that if we need to develop TCM, we should use Chinese traditional research methods
答案：C 细节理解题。根据第六段中的“The theory and recipe is TCM, but in practice the evaluation of our medicines is carried out according to western evidence-based methods，”可知，武夷岭先生让他的公司用西方循证方法评估草药。故选C。
11．According to the last two paragraphs, we infer that ________.
A．western doctors deny the effectiveness of TCM
B．TCM hasn't been recognized in the western medicine
C．there is a lack of rigorous training for TCM doctors
D．a recent series of shocking events has destroyed Chinese medicine
答案：B 推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“The TCM law has been greeted with doubt from China's western-schooled medical establishment, which points to a lack of rigorous training for TCM doctors, and a recent series of shocking events involving herbal injections believed to have been harmful.”可推知，中医在西方医学中尚未得到认可。故选B。
(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)Before the 1830s, most newspapers were sold through annual subscriptions in America, usually $8 to $10 a year. Today $8 or $10 seems a small amount of money, but at that time these amounts were forbidding to most citizens. Accordingly, newspapers were read almost only by rich people in politics or the trades. In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding. But the revolution that was taking place in the 1830s would change all that.
The trend, then, was toward the“penny paper”—a term referring to papers made widely available to the public. It meant any inexpensive newspaper；perhaps more importantly it meant newspapers that could be bought in single copies on the street.
This development did not take place overnight. It had been possible(but not easy)to buy single copies of newspapers before 1830, but this usually meant the reader had to go down to the printer's office to purchase a copy. Street sales were almost unknown. However, within a few years, street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities. At first the price of single copies was seldom a penny—usually two or three cents was charged—and some of the older well-known papers charged five or six cents. But the phrase “penny paper” caught the public's fancy, and soon there would be papers that did indeed sell for only a penny.
This new trend of newspapers for“the man on the street” did not begin well. Some of the early ventures (企业) were immediate failures. Publishers already in business, people who were owners of successful papers, had little desire to change the tradition. It took a few youthful and daring businessmen to get the ball rolling.
12．Which of the following best describes newspapers in America before the 1830s?
答案：B 细节理解题。根据第一段倒数第二句可知，当时的美国报纸既枯燥又在视觉上令人生畏，故选unattractive “不吸引人的”。
13．What did street sales mean to newspapers?
A．They would be priced higher.
B．They would disappear from cities.
C．They could have more readers.
D．They could regain public trust.
14．Who were the newspapers of the new trend targeted at?
A．Local politicians. B．Common people.
C．Young publishers. D．Rich businessmen.
15．What can we say about the birth of the penny paper?
A．It was a difficult process.
B．It was a temporary success.
C．It was a robbery of the poor.
D．It was a disaster for printers.
(2019·厦门一中高三模拟)Although it is less often read than such Wells' novels as TheWaroftheWorlds, the basic story of TheIslandofDr Moreau is very well-known through several extremely loose film adaptations (改编). Prendick, a British scientist, has an accident at sea—and by chance finds himself on a mysterious island where Dr Moreau and his assistant Montgomery are engaged in strange experiments of turning animals into humans.
Wells was a social reformer, and his novels reflected (反映) his thoughts and theories about human society. Much of Wells' writing concerns (either directly or indirectly) social class, but Moreau deals with the then-newly advanced theory of evolution (进化)—and then works to relate how that theory influences man's belief in God. Wells sometimes mentioned this in his novels, but nowhere in his work is this line of thought more clearly and specifically seen than here.
Sometimes Wells tries to influence his readers strongly, while on other occasions, he does it gently. But in TheIslandof DrMoreau, Wells achieves a perfect balance of the two extremes. It is an impressive achievement, and in this sense I consider Moreau possibly the best of Wells' works. The novel is as interesting for the story it tells as it is for its themes that are still very important today.
Moreau is not as horrific as Wells' many other novels—he often included horror and cruelty in his science fiction. Still, this is not a book that you can read and then put away: it stays in your mind in a most disturbing way. Strongly recommended.
16．We learn from Paragraph 2 that Wells________.
A．expressed his ideas about society in his novels
B．didn't mention the theory of evolution in Moreau
C．used his pen to fight for human rights
D．paid little attention to social developments
答案：A 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句中的“his novels reflected (反映) his thoughts and theories about human society”可知，威尔斯的小说反映了他的社会思想和理论，故选A项。
17．What can be concluded from the text?
A．Most of Wells' novels remain unknown.
B．Wells was a science fiction writer.
C．TheIslandofDrMoreau is a horror story.
D．Wells' writing style is humorous.
答案：B 细节理解题。根据最后一段第一句中的“he often ... in his science fiction”可知，威尔斯是一名科幻小说家。
18．The author's attitude towards TheIslandofDr Moreau is that of________.
答案：C 推理判断题。根据第三段第三句中的“and in this sense I consider Moreau possibly the best of Wells' works”和文章最后一句“Strongly recommended.”可知，作者对《莫罗博士岛》这部作品评价甚高，大为赞赏。